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IV-type , VFD tubes

The device consists of a hot cathode (filaments), anodes (phosphor) and grids encased in a glass envelope under a high vacuum condition.

The cathode is made up of fine tungsten wires, coated by alkaline earth metal oxides, which emit electrons when heated by an electric current.

These electrons are controlled and diffused by the grids, which are made up of thin metal. If electrons impinge on the phosphor-coated plates,
they fluoresce, emitting light. Unlike the orange-glowing cathodes of traditional vacuum tubes,

VFD cathodes are efficient emitters at much lower temperatures, and are therefore essentially invisible.

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